Most of the Egyptian land was a hot dry desert in Ancient times. However, every year, the rushing waters of the River Nile flowed from its banks all the way along Egyptian territory. The great River Nile flooded into the dry fields. In the south, in the Aswan region, this phenomenon began to be noticeable from the end of May. Water was rising very quickly in July, reaching its highest level in September. The waters fell from October to May. Lower Egypt witnessed a similar process about two weeks later than Upper Egypt. The intensity of the floods depended on rainfall in Ethiopia. The desert started where the floodwater could not reach.
The water was very rich in minerals, which spread wide along the river banks. When the flooding stopped, the vegetation period lasted from October to February. Farmers then plowed the soil, planted seeds, and maintained irrigation through the ditches and channels.
The channel system was developed due to the low rainfall, prompting Egyptian farmers to rely on the River Nile for their water. The area where the soil was planted in the valley during the spill was to some degree equalized, and The irrigation channels formed a series of pools, dividing the land into terraces, descending towards the River Nile.
Oxen and wooden plows were used to plow the ground. Between March and May the crops were harvested. The main crops that were grown, were cereals. The farmers were also breeding goats, sheep, ducks and geese, they even bred bees to produce honey.
Young boys earned money as scarecrows. They drove the birds away by shouting loudly loudly.In Ancient Egypt they grew barley for beer and grapes for wine. Dates, figs, melons, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes and lettuce grew well in the rich soil. Wheat was also grown to bake bread.
The life of the ancient Egyptians was built around the floods of the Nile, as evidenced by the fact that the new year in their calendar began with the rising waters of the river.